16th Century (1500-1599) C.E.

1500: In the Burji Mamluks empire, Zahir Kanauh overthrown by Ashraf Gan Balat.

1501: Isamil I establishes the Safavid dynasty in Persia, and the Twelve-Imam Shi'ism becomes the state religion.

1507: The Portuguese under d'Albuquerque establish strongholds in the Persian Gulf.

1508: Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, End of the White Sheep dynasty and the annexation of their territories by the Safawids.

1511: D'Albuquerque conquers Malacca from the Muslims.

1517: The Ottoman Sultan Selim Yavuz ("the Grim") defeats the Mamluks and conquers Egypt.

1520: The reign of Sulayman the Magnificent begins.

1526: Louis of Hungary dies at the Battle of Mohacs.

1526: The Battle of Panipat in India, and the Moghul conquest; Babur makes his capital at Delhi and Agra.

1528: The Ottomans take Buda in Hungary.

1529: Unsuccessful Ottoman siege of Vienna.

1550: The architect Sinan builds the Suleymaniye mosque in Istanbul.

1550: The rise of the Muslim kingdom of Atjeh in Sumatra.

1550: Islam spreads to Java, the Moluccas, and Borneo.

1556: The death of Sulayman the Magnificent.

1568: Alpujarra uprising of the Moriscos (Muslims forcibly converted to Catholicism) in Spain.

1571: The Ottomans are defeated at the naval Battle of Lepanto, and their dominance in the Mediterranean is brought to a close.

1578: The Battle of the Three Kings at Qasr al-Kabir in Morocco. King Sebastian of Portugal is killed.

1588: Reign of Safavid Sultan Shah Abbas I begins.

1591: Mustaili Ismailis split into Sulaymanis and Daudis.

17th Century (1600-1699) C.E.

1600: Sind annexed by the Mughals. End of the Arghun rule in Sind.

1601: Khandesh annexed by the Mughals.

1603: Battle of Urmiyah. Turks suffer defeat. Persia occupies Tabriz, Mesopotamia. Mosul and Diyarbekr. Death of Muhammad III, Sultan of Turkey, accession of Ahmad I. In Morocco al Shaikh died.

1604: In Indonesia death of Alauddin Rayat Shah, Sultan of Acheh, accession of Ali Rayat Shah III.

1605: Death of the Mughal emperor Akbar; accession of Jahangir.

1607: Annexation of Ahmadnagar by the Mughals.

1609: Annexation of Bidar by the Mughals

1611: Kuch Behar subjugated by the Mughals.

1612: Kamrup annexed by the Mughals.

1617: Death of Ahmad I, Sultan of Turkey, accession of Mustafa; Deposition of Mustafa: accession of Othman II.

1618: Tipperah annexed by the Mughals.

1620: In Turkey deposition of Mustafa, accession of Othman II.

1623: In Turkey Mustafa recaptured power.

1625: In Turkey deposition of Mustafa, accession of Murad IV.

1627: Death of the Mughal emperor Jahangir, accession of Shah Jahan.

1628: Reign of Safavid Sultan Shah Abbas I comes to an end.

1629: In Persia death of Shah Abbas; accession of grandson Safi.

1631: Death of Mumtaz Mahal, wife of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan and the lady of Taj Mahal, Agra.

1637: Death of Iskandar Muda in Indonesia; accession of Iskandar II.

1640: Death of Otthman Sultan Murad IV. accession of his brother Ibrahim.

1641: Turks capture Azov. In Indonesia death of Iskandar II; accession of the Queen Tajul Alam.

1642: In Persia death of Shah Safi, accession of Shah Abbas II.

1648: In Turkey Ibrahim deposed; accession of Muhammad IV.

1656: Muhammad Kuiprilli becomes the Grand Minister in Turkey.

1658: Deposition of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, accession of Aurangzeb.

1661: Death of Muhammad Kuiprilli, accession of his son Ahmad Kuiprilli.

1667: Death of Shah Abbas II; accession of Shah Sulaiman.

1675: Execution of the Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur. In Indonesia death of the queen Tajul Alam, accession of the queen Nur ul Alam.

1676: Death of the Grand Wazir of Turkey Ahmad Kuiprilli, succession by Kara Mustafa.

1678: In Indonesia death of the queen Nur ul Alam, accession of the queen Inayat Zakia.

1680: Death of Marhatta chieftain Shivaji.

1682: Assam annexed by the Mughals. Aurangzeb shifts the capital to Aurangabad in the Deccan.

1683: The Turks lift the siege of Vienna and retreat. Kara Mustafa the Grand Wazir executed for the failure of the expedition.

1686: Annexation of Bijapur by the Mughals.

1687: Golkunda annexed by the Mughals. Second battle of Mohads. Defeat of the Turks by Austria. Deposition of Muhammad IV. Accession of Sulaiman II.

1688: In Indonesia death of queen Inayat Zakia, accession of the queen Kamalah.

1690: Death of the Ottoman Sultan Sulaiman II, accession of Ahmad II.

1692: Death of the Turk Sultan Ahmad II, accession of Mustafa II.

1694: In Persia death of Shah Safi, accession of Shah Hussain.

1699: In Indonesia death of Queen Kamalah.

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